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UNIVERSITY OF FORESTRY

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  • 05.5
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DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF FORESTRY
The foundations of the scientific researches have been made in recent years of the XIX century and early twentieth century by specialists foresters who graduated in Russia, Western and Central Europe. They began their career in our country even before the creation of specialized scientific structure. The first publications are with enlightened and promotional character with main purpose of protecting Bulgarian forests, their proper management, erosion control and the establishment of fortifications, the establishment of forest plantations and others. It is the beginning of the creation of regulations on some key issues for forestry, the foreign experience adapted to specific natural geographic conditions of Bulgarian forests and national experience in the protection of Bulgarian nature.
The first start of researches in the University of Forestry is considered in 1923, when at the Agronomy Faculty of Sofia University is created Department "Private Forestry" the first scientific structure in the field of forestry. From this period are the first publications - the result of serious scientific researches. The department of private forestry is preparing the scientific, didactic and legal bases for disclosure in January 1925 at the Agronomy Faculty of Sofia University department of forestry with four specialized departments: "Private forestry", "Overall forestry", "Forest management in forest taxation“ and "Forest use with forest technology". At this time, although difficult, begins the formation of the scientific potential, facilitate the development of forestry science.
Serious preconditions for the development of researches creates the formation of a separate Faculty of Forestry in 1948 at the Agricultural Academy. There were created four departments: Forestry, Forest industry, Operating-transport and Green urban design, significantly broaden the scope of researches, scientific papers and publications. It becomes their forest-industry nature of the researches. The created new courses and programs in higher education broaden the scope of researches, which contributes significantly to the creation in 1953 of the High Forestry Institute (HFI) with five majors.
During this period, the scientific potential in the HFI sharply increases. Facilities for scientific researches is continuously expanded and specialized. It was performed successful integration between fundamental and theoretical researches with those with profiling and applied nature. With its scientific potential, scientific experience and qualifications staff of the HFI began independently to solve the problems of forestry, forestry and landscaping of settlements. This period lasted until 1974 when they separated faculty "Forestry and landscaping" and faculty "Forest Industry".
Scientific researches during this period was characterized by the publication of numerous scientific papers and scientific articles on the issues of forestry, mechanical technology of wood, landscaping, industry economies, fundamental sciences. This created conditions for comprehensive development of complex and wide-ranging topics such as: The Poplar problem in Bulgaria; Integrated use of beech wood; The use of cableways in logging; Production and use of oak wood; Increasing the productivity of coniferous forests; Wood and environment; Forest and recreation.

Serious studies have been made on other issues too: The ecological conditions and biology of tree species; Methods for typing forest native plants, volume, experienced and variety tables for various tree species. It has been studied a technological maturity of our most valuable tree species. It has been developed new methods for proper management of forests and the conversion of low-stem forests into high; the usefulness of forest seeds with a view to producing quality planting material; explored the possibilities for vegetative propagation of the species; developed are the foundations of the forestry division of the country; by genetic studies have been established valuable white pine, spruce, fir, beech, red oak and others; principles have been developed to combat erosion in our country; studied the impact of different means to protect forests and establish efficient methods to combat pests and some others.
Important place in the scientific research take fundamental research affecting forests and forestry. Dendrology science has developed in all its sections. It was studied a systematics of many coniferous and deciduous tree species. It was performed morphological and anatomical studies on the dynamics of rizogenezis in cloning some poplars and willows. It was examined the variability of the needles of the pines, the reproductive organs of seed plants and others. Good results were obtained in clarification of polymorphism, physiological events and transpiration of the indigenous woody plants. Contribution in physiology are studies on water regime, photosynthesis, and photosynthetic productivity in tree species.
It has been studied the phytoncides activity of a number of ornamental trees and shrubs and was made classification of tree species in their phytoncide activity. During this period, profound results were achieved in studies in ecology, biology, phytogeography, history and dynamics of forest vegetation and classification of plant communities. Important role in basic researches take up the issues of introduction of trees and bushes; studies on the biology of seeds; chemical, biochemical and biophysical researches on forest tree species.
Significant contributions were in the fields of forest genetics and selection too. Has been studied ecotypes, biotypes variety of the most common tree species. There has been genetically characterize many pluses trees through genetic examination of the offspring. There are a significant number of vegetative and seed garden collections for white pine, black pine, white fir, spruce, common fir, with a view to the study, preservation and utilization of forest genetic resources to meet the practical needs with improved hereditary regarding reproductive materials.
More than a quarter century exploring introgresive hybrids of white pine and dwarf pine, ordinary and Greek fir and a number of experimental crops were created. The subject of years of research have the mutation, wagon native, bio-typical and individual variability in some coniferous and deciduous species.
The contribution of researches to enhance the productivity of Bulgarian forests is significant. There have been studies on the environmental conditions and the development of forest typology, improvement of forestation work in the country in the field of forestry seed production, establishment of forest plantations. Substantial and in-depth are studies, aimed at improve forest management relating to the implementation of major logging and thinning; to bunk plantations, to the conversion of coppice forests into seminiferous.

The contribution of researches are significant in the field of hunting, fishing and protection of the park fauna. It consists in studying the biology and ecology of some of the major game species, re-acclimatization of some species, game management, support for artificial breeding. Selective hunting of game is developed. It has been explored the main habitats of a number of game species and plant species, serving them food. Attention is paid to the impact of intensification in agriculture and forestry on the populations of game. Investigates the causes, nature and extent of damage on the forest done by some game species. Exploring the possibilities for organizing cost-effective hunting grounds and their use for international hunting tourism.
Multilateral is the researching in technology and mechanization in forestry, in the area of forestry transport, mechanization and technology of timber, mechanization of forestry works, construction and introduction of various forestry machinery. Investigated and resolved are a number of issues related to forest cableways, optimizing the density of primary forest roads and transport-technological utilization of the forests, stabilize the pavement, organization, planning and forecasting of forestry activities, improve technology and equipment in logging.
In the field of landscaping, landscape architecture, gardening and landscape device developed criteria and requirements for the design, construction and maintenance of green areas, creation of forest parks and suburbs recreational areas, construction of green systems, establishment of decorative qualities of domestic and introduced tree, shrub, flower and grass species, greening of highways, recreation areas, courtyards, device and rehabilitation of landscapes, degraded and damaged areas. Scientifically are solved a number of issues such as country parks around settlements; forest and recreation; problems of the landscape of the Black Sea coast; landscape national heritage; problems of landscaping Sofia, Shumen landscape of the county and landscaping of the city. Scientifically are clarified key indicators, principles and criteria from territorial-planning toward positional-aesthetic, biologically-ecological, constructional-technical economic and organizational aspect of landscaping, gardening and landscape development.
In the field of ecology and protection of the environment are developed topics related to forest ecosystems and landscaping; modern methods and principles of environmentally sound spatial planning of urban development; evaluating and monitoring the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems; forecast for the development of protected natural areas in the forested country; specificities of soil formation processes in forestry-biological reclamation of techno-gennes landscapes; noise protection qualities of green areas in urban areas; the impact of aggravated conditions of the urban environment on urban ecology and others.
In the field of Mechanical Wood Technology scientific researches are aimed at creating new pressed wood products; design and manufacture of furniture; research and improvement of the physical and mechanical properties of wood of various domestic and foreign types and forms; optimal regimes under hydrothermal processing of wood; air drying of materials from coniferous and deciduous species; impregnating and modifying wood; modes drying of laminated materials; the influence of various factors on the properties of the plywood and curved parts; production and quality of fiber board and Flake board. Structural components and assemblies of furniture products have been tested; application of new materials; processes veneered and intensification of adhesion; protection of wood from biological pests and extension of its durability; production wood-cement plates; designing modern furniture types and models; improvement, unification and normalization of the hull and upholstered furniture. Advancing the existing and developing the new technologies for the production of furniture. Processes in chopping and sawing wood in a variety of methods were studied, automation of machining of wood and its drying, internal transport, the fight against noise and vibration, the use of lasers in the processing of wood. Considerable research has been carried out: new technologies for sharpening tools for wood with new materials; creating new structures for wood cutting tools with high wear resistance, improved structures of woodworking machines and vibroacoustic characteristics of woodworking machines; the problems of automatic control and management of basic operations and processes.
The scientific topics in economics, organization and management takes its rightful place in the researches at the university. It is estimated the development of forestry and forest industry and its importance to the economy. The needs of local, regional and national market of timber and other forest products has been studied. The University of forestry has its own contribution to the study of economic conditions and prerequisites for expanded reproduction of forest resources to enhance the productivity of forests, production efficiency in forestry and forest industry. There are significant researches related to the organization of labor and wages; ergonomic requirements to work in the industry; specialization and concentration of production, forestry zoning etc. After 1990, forest economic and managerial science are focused on the improvement of the mechanisms of government in market conditions, clarifying the economic substance of green building, landscape architecture and environmental protection, economic assessment of different forest ecosystems etc.
A new stage in the development of research in the UF begins after July 1995, when the National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria converted the high school in the University of Forestry with six faculties.
After that date, the scope and topic of researches are expanding significantly. Besides the traditional guidelines for researches into scientific problems UF also includes studies for environmental purposes, business management, veterinary medicine and agriculture.
Big boost research university makes with an agreement signed between Bulgaria and Switzerland for cooperation in the field of forestry in the implementation of forestry which is a major partner. Two joint Bulgarian-Swiss projects have been developed.
Project 1 - "Environmentally and sustainable forest management", aims to improvement, application, evaluation and dissemination of arboriculturistical methods in terms of multifunctional use of forest resources based on solid scientific researches and regulatory basis. The project is structured into three sub-projects, covering: heterogeneous coniferous forests, beech forests and oak forests. Significant number of scientific and practical experiments has been spent. Concepts for multifunctional forest management and biodiversity conservation has been developed.
Project 2 - "Monitoring of forest ecosystems" aims to assess and monitor the impact of harmful substances in the air on forest ecosystems. In three typical for Bulgaria forest ecosystems in unpolluted areas and areas subject to the influence of atmospheric pollutants being investigated following indicators: air pollution, dry and wet atmospheric deposition, lysimetric water, soil surveys, leaf analysis and health of monitored plants. The results of this project will serve to determine the critical values of pollution, as well as a basis for determining the measures that need to be taken.
In recent years there has been a strong resurgence of academic staff in terms of international scientific cooperation and research in the University of Forestry more successfully integrate into the European Research Area.
The university of forestry is an active participant in the International Cooperative Program of the UN, European Economic Commission for monitoring transboundary pollution in Europe. Representatives of the UF conducted monitoring for 4 of the 6 cooperative programs to the Working Group on effects.
Representatives of the University of Forestry actively participate in shares of international program COST.
The UF successfully participate in EU Framework Programs for scientific researches as a subcontractor on the project CONTROCAM fifth framework program, a participant in projects BIO NET, MOTIVE and INTEGRAL seventh Framework Program.
Teachers from the UF participate in various forms in several other draft Framework EU projects:
Representatives of the UF participate in projects funded by other international programs INTEREG III A, SCOPES program of Swiss International Program BBI MATRA THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS.UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM UNDP-GEF GLOBAL ECOFUND
Cooperation on joint projects funded by foreign partners is actively - WWF - an international environmental organization, the International Institute of Plant Nutrition (IPNI), Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Research and snow Landscapes (WSL), the Forest Research Institute of the Siberian department of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS IG CO, on Krasnoyarsk). International Atomic Agency, the University of Calgary, the World Bank and others.
There has been strengthening bilateral cooperation in scientific and applied projects. In the UF were developed projects bilateral cooperation between Bulgaria and Greece, Slovakia, Macedonia, Romania, Ukraine, India, France, Switzerland.

In recent years are made efforts to update the research infrastructure. With its own resources or by funding from external sources. Upgraded are the Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Protection, and the Laboratory of Soil Science. The university of forestry is a partner in the consortium won three projects competitions NSF MES development of scientific infrastructure:

  • consortium of, Sofia University - Physical and Chemical Faculty, Technical University Department of Applied Physics, BAS - IOH funded by NSF MES to build powerful short-impulse laser system. "System to amplify femtosecond laser impulses;
  • the University of Forestry is a partner in the newly created network of vivariums in Bulgaria under the leadership of the Military Medical Academy - Sofia;
  • Project National Agricultural Research & Information complex to build an effective system of advanced scientific and information services to agricultural sciences - national agrarian complex scientific information. Equipping the complex, Centre for Scientific and Technical Information in Agricultural Academy.

Particular attention is paid to strengthening the link between science and business. The University of Forestry is one of four universities with established Center for Entrepreneurship. Together with the Patent Department of the Republic of Bulgaria supported Mini-Informational Consulting Center for Intellectual Property. Priority of the university is the resurgence of the created Center for Technology Transfer.
Numerous national and international scientific developing projects affirms the University of Forestry as a national research center for applied researches in the field of sustainable use of biological resources.

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